CHAPTER ONE-FOOTNOTES
1 Calumet Light Guards, Our Boys in the Spanish-American War (Houghton: Gazette 
Company, 1900), pp. 5 - 11, 23 - 24, 38.

 

2 Ibid. pp. 20-24.

 

3 United States Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 107th Engineer Battalion.

 

4 Kenyon Boyer, 'Early Military Companies,' (unpublished radio talk for WDMJ, 
Marquette, Michigan, March 4, 1956), no pagination indicated.

 

5 Mining Journal (Marquette), June 4, 1892.

 

6 Boyer, 'Early Military.' n.p.

 

7 Mining Journal (Marquette), June 4, 1892.

 

8 Ibid.

 

9 Boyer, 'Early Military.' n.p.

 

10 Letter, William S. Green, Adjutant General to Brigadier General Charles King, August 
29, 1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 1132.

 

11 Letter, G.W. Green, Assistant General to Colonel Frank B. Lyons, June 11, 1892, 
Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

12 Kenyon Boyer, 'Early military Companies,' (unpublished radio talk for WDMJ, 
Marquette, Michigan, March 4, 1956), no pagination indicated.

 

13 Telegram, Charles S. Eaton, Adjutant General, to Colonel F.B. Lyons, July 3, 1894, 
Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

14 Telegram, Charles S. Eaton, Adjutant General, to Captain W.S. Winslow, July 3, 
1894, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

15 Telegram, C.S. Eaton, Adjutant General to Captains E.S. Gierson, Chester, Millan 
and Ball, July 3, 1894, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

16 Telegram, W.W. Cook, Assistant Adjutant General, to Colonel J. E. Fymell, July 3, 
1894, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

17 Mining Journal (Marquette), July 7, 1894.

 

18 Ibid.

 

19 Ibid.

 

20 Ibid.

 

21 Mining Journal (Marquette), July 21, 1894.

 

22 Ibid.

 

23 Mining Journal (Marquette), July 28, 1894.

 

24 Letter, to Major Winthrop Alexander, October 21, 1896, Michigan State Archives, 
Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

25 Mining Journal (Marquette), July 28, 1894; Ironwood News-Record, July 28, 1894,

 

26 Mining Journal (Marquette), May 4,1895; Telegram, William S. Green, Adjutant 
General, to Colonel B.S. Kaufman, May 2, 1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter 
File, Volume 182; Telegram, William S. Green, Adjutant General, to Captain Ball, May 2, 
1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

27 Kenyon Boyer, 'Early Strikes in the Marquette County Area,' (unpublished radio talk 
for WDMJ, Number 245, Volume 111, June 26, 1959), p. 5.

 

28 Boyer, 'Early Strikes,' p. 6.

 

29 Boyer, 'Early Strikes,' p. 6.

 

30 Boyer, 'Early Strikes,' p. 6.

 

31 Telegram, W.W. Cook, Assistant Adjutant General, to John Broad, Sheriff of 
Marquette County, August 31, 1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File Volume 
182.

 

32 Telegram, W.W. Cook, Assistant Adjutant General, to Governor Rich, August 31 
1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182; Telegram, W.W Cook, 
Assistant Adjutant General, to Colonel F.B. Lyon, August 31, 1895, Michigan State 
Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

33 Telegram, W.W. Cook, Assistant Adjutant General, to Colonel F. B. Lyon, August 
1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

34 Telegram, J.J. Rich, Governor, to Robert Miller, General Superintendent M.C.R.R., 
August 31, 1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182; Telegram, 
W.W. Cook, Assistant Adjutant General, to Captain W.S. McArthur August 31, 1895, 
Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182.

 

35 Telegram, W.W. Cook, Assistant Adjutant General, to Lt. Commander Gilbert 
Wilkes, August 31, 1895, Michigan State Archives, Military Letter File, Volume 182

 

36 Mining Journal (Marquette), September 7, 1895.

 

37 Ibid.

 

38 Mining Journal (Marquette), September 14, 1895.

39 Ibid.

40 Ibid.

41 Mining Journal (Marquette), September 16, 1895.

42 Ibid.

 

43 Boyer, 'Early Military,' p. 5.

 

44 Calumet Light Guards, Our Boys in the Spanish-American War (Houghton: Gazette 
Company, 1900), p. 25.

 

45 Op cit. Our Boys, p. 25.

 

46 Op cit. Our Boys, p. 32.

 

47 Op cit. Our Boys, p. 32.

 

48 Robert W. Wells, Daylight in the Swamp. (Garden City, New York: Doubleday and 
Co., 1978).

CHAPTER TWO - FOOTNOTES
1 Robert Leckie, The Wars of America (New York: Harper & Row, 1967).

2 Letter, to Charles C. Phillips, Chairman, Military Investigating Committee, fromthe Assistant Adjutant General of Michigan, dated January 14, 1899.

 

3 Copper Country Evening News (Calumet), April 22, 1898.

 

4 Ibid, April 24, 1898.

 

5 Ibid. April 25, 1898.

 

6 Descriptive Roll of Company, Field and Staff, 34th Regiment, Michigan Infantry
Volunteers, 1898 - 99.

 

7 Copper Country Evening News (Calumet), April 29, 1898.

 

8 Calumet Light Guards, Our Boys in the Spanish-American War (Houghton: 
Gazette Company, 1900), p. 7.

 

9 Ironwood News, May 21, 1898.

 

10 Copper Country Evening News (Calumet), April 17, 1898.

 

11 Ibid, April 29, 1898.

 

12 Ibid.

 

13 Ibid, May 2, 1898.

 

14 Op cit. Descriptive Roll, n.p.

 

15 Copper Country Evening News (Calumet), May 9, 1898.

 

16 Ironwood News, May 5, 1898.

 

17 Copper Country Evening News (Calumet), May 10, 1898.

 

18 Ibid, May 14, 1898.

 

19 Op cit. Descriptive Roll, n.p.

 

20 Ironwood News, May 7, 1898.

 

21 Ibid, May 28, 1898.

 

22 Op cit. Descriptive Rolls, n.p.

 

23 Camp Alger was named for Russell A. Alger, the current Secretary of the 
Army and a Michigan native. Alger County was also named for him.

 

24 Ironwood News, May 5, 1898.

 

25 Annual Reports of the War Department (Washington, D.C.: Government 
Printing Office, 1898), p. 357.

 

26 Ibid, p. 357.

 

27 Ibid, p. 360.

 

28 Copper Country Evening News (Calumet), July 27, 1898.

 

29 Op cit. Annual Report, p. 360.

 

30 Ibid.

 

32 Ibid.

 

33 Daily Mining Journal (Marquette), May 2, 1914.

 

34 Letter, Pvt. John Miller to Mr. Joseph Bosch, dated August 14, 1898.

 

35 Ibid.

 

36 Ibid.

 

37 Our Boys, p. 5.

 

38 Our Boys, p. 5.

 

39 Our Boys, p. 13

CHAPTER THREE- FOOTNOTES

 

1 Lineage and Honors Certificate, 107th Engineer Battalion, Department of the 
Army.

 

2 Archives, Headquarters, 107th Engineer Battalion, Ishpeming, Michigan.

 

3 Ibid.

 

4 Report of the Adjutant General of Michigan, December 31, 1912 - December 31, 
1914, pp. 1 - 12.

 

5 Ibid.

CHAPTER FOUR - FOOTNOTES

 

1 General Order Number 9, Adjutant General's Office, Lansing, Michigan, June 
19, 1916.

 

2 Letter from Major General U.S. Grant III to CW4 Leonard Lorge, dated February 
6, 1959.

 

CHAPTER FIVE - FOOTNOTES

 

1 32nd Division Historical Association, 'History of the 107th Engineer Regiment,' 
1979-1919.

 

2 Michigan College of Mines Catalog, 1916 -1920.

 

3 Michigan College of Mines Alumnus, Volumes 5 - 9, January 1918. Michigan 
College of Mines, Houghton, Michigan.

 

4 107th Regimental Training Report, submitted by Colonel P.S. Bond, 
Commanding Officer, December 15, 1917.

 

5 Ibid, p. 9.

 

6 A.J. Stump. 'Hold That Tiger.' American Legion Magazine, January, 1981.

 

7 Op cit., 'History of the 107th.'

 

8 The Cleveland News, February 7, 1918.

 

9 Op cit., '107th Regimental Training Report.'

10 Joint War History Commission of Michigan and Wisconsin, The 32nd Division 
the World War (Milwaukee, 1920).

 

11 In World War 1, 42 U.S. combat divisions were sent overseas, but without any 
the required service support units. As a result the 'Tooth-to-tail' ratio was 
unmanageable. Eventually, 12 of the 42 combat divisions were broken up to 
serve both replacements and service support troops. (Hankee, William P. 
'Implications the Peacetime Combat-to-Support Ration on the U.S. War Fighting 
Capability Military Review. June 1979).

 

12 Historical Report of the Chief Engineer, A.E.F. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C. 1919).

 

13 Staffs can never make up their minds!

 

14 Corporal Joseph A. Hardlick, 'Record of Movements.' 1917 - 1919.

 

15 Op cit., Historical Report, p. 182.

 

16 Op cit., Historical Report, p. 182.

 

17 Major General Blakeley, 32nd Division in World War II. (Madison, Wisconsin 
1952).

 

18 Frank E. Vandiver. Black Jack, the Life and Times of John J. Pershing. Texas 
A M University Press: College Station, Texas.

 

19 Letter from Commanding General, 64th Division (French) to Commanding Off 
ice 107th Engineer Regiment, dated September 16, 1918.

 

20 Op cit., Historical Report, p. 209.

 

21 Op cit., the 32nd Division.

 

22 Op cit., 'History of the 107th.'

 

23 Letter, Colonel Bond to Lt. Col. Callan, dated February 15, 1919.

 

24 Letter from A. Owen Ayres, former 107th Regiment Supply Officer, 
undated.

 

CHAPTER SIX - FOOTNOTES

 

1 32nd Division Historical Association, 'History of the 107th Engineer Regiment, 
1917-1919.

 

2 Ibid.

 

3 Executive Order .8551, dated September 25, 1940.

 

4 Bull Sheet. Issue no. 21, 107th Engineer Association, Ishpeming, Michigan.

 

5 Op cit., History.

 

6 Camp Livingston was named for Edward Livingston, a Louisiana politician who 
served as an Aide do Camp to General Jackson during the Battle of New Orleans. 
Livingston was twice cited for bravery.

 

7 Major General Blakely, 32nd Division in World War II. (Madison: Bureau of 
Purchase).

 

8 Letter from Company F, 107th Engineer Regiment, dated October 7, 1941.

 

9 Letter from Chief of Staff, Headquarters V Corps dated December 15, 1941.

 

10 Letter from Major General Loveland to Lt. Colonel Ward dated April 23, 1952.

 

11 It was at Fort Dix that Calumet's Company E was redesignated as Company A.

 

12 All of the Guard's 18 divisions were of the square type, large, unwieldy, and 
difficult to manage in combat. The Army had developed the 'triangular' division, about 
one-third smaller and far more flexible and organized the regular divisions in this new 
matter. Although the Guard had long asked that their divisions also be converted, the 
Army had refused until after Pearl Harbor. The foot-dragging by the Army caused 
massive problems in reorganizations as well as deep resentment among Guardsmen.

 

13 The GEORGE ELLIOTT would later be sunk by Japanese action off the Solomon 
Islands.

 

14 Letter from Base Engineer (Colonel Donald Adams) to Commanding Officer, 112th 
Engineer Regiment, dated June 8, 1942.

 

15 Historical and Pictorial Review of the National Guard of the State of Michigan, 
1940 (Baton Rouge: Army and Navy Publishing Company, 1940), pp. 118 - 141.

 

16 General Order Number 28, Department of Military Affairs, State of Michigan, dated 
April 24, 1975.

 

17 Old Company D 107th Regiment, Marquette Company then commanded by 
Captain Cecil F. Clark, dated Lt. Colonel Clark, Commanding Officer of the 146th 
Engineer (C) Battalion one of the three Combat Engineer Battalions of the 1121st 
Engineer (C) Group the other two being the 112th Battalion and the 254th Engineer 
Battalion.

 

18 Letter from Major General Loveland to Colonel L.C. Ward, dated April 23, 1952.

 

19 As the 107th became the 2nd Battalion, its companies were designated as D, E, F, 
in effect the old A, B, C; notes, Colonel Loveland, undated, National Archives.

 

20 Unit History of the 522nd Engineer Company, dated June 14, 1968.

 

21 Headquarters, V Corps, Letter dated August 19, 1943; With the effective loss of 
Company F to North Africa, another Company was organized from the Battalion to 
take its place and brought to strength by replacement officers and men.

 

22 Letter from Colonel Robert McDonough to Colonel Austin Lindberg, Commanding 
Officer 107th, dated April 4, 1962.

 

23 Waldo G. Bowman, American Military Engineering in Europe (New York: McGraw 
Hill, 1945), pp. 88 - 89.

 

24 World War II Operations Report, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'S-3 Periodic 
Report, July - December, 1943.' National Archives and Records Service (NARS), 
Washington, D.C.

 

25 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C), 'Battalion 
History, Month of July 1944.' NARS.

 

26 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C), 'Report - U.S. 
Assault Training Center Project, January 22, 1944.' NARS.

 

27 Op cit., 'S-3 Periodic Report, July - December, 1943.'

 

28 Captain William W. Bainbridge was awarded the Silver Star for action on the coast 
of France, June 6, 1944.

 

29 Op cit., 'Battalion History, Month of July, 1944.'

 

30 The unit was under the command of 1st Lt. Arlan Bond.

 

31 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'Battalion History 
for the Month of August, 1944.' NARS.

 

32 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'Engineer 
Operations Report for the Month of September, 1944.' NARS.

 

33 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'Engineer 
Operations Report for the Month of October, 1944.' NARS.

 

34 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'Engineer 
Operations Report for the Month of November, 1944.' NARS.

 

35 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'After Action 
Report, December, 1944.' NARS.

 

36 V Corps Operations in the European Theater of Operations, January 6, 1942 1945. 
NARS.

 

37 The actual citation read:
By the action of the President of the Provisional Government of the French 
Republic, the 107th Engineers is also awarded a streamer in the colors of the French 
Croix de Guerre with Silver Star embroidered 'BELGIUM' with the following citation:
'A splendid unit, which distinguished itself in the Bullingen region (Belgium) on 
December 17, 1944. It was thrown into a breach opened by the enemy and assigned 
the mission of closing off three roads of vital strategic interest. After furious combat, it 
blocked the adversary, causing them severe losses, thus showing the finest qualities 
of courage and Military Valor.'
        BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY.

38 SSG Charles L. Senecal (posthumously)
1 Lt. John R. Huff
SSG Donald M. Doguette

 

39 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'After Action 
Report, January, 1945, Daily Journal.' NARS.

 

40 An abatis is an obstacle created by falling trees across a road in an interlocking 
pattern.

 

41 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'After Action 
Report, February, 1945, Daily Journal.' NARS.

 

42 Op cit., 'V Corps in ETD.'

 

43 To remain in position against the pressure of the flow of the river, a floating bridge 
has to be anchored. Usually this is accomplished by a series of kedge anchors on the 
river bottom and by attachment to a steel cable firmly anchored on each shore and 
stretched across the river parallel to the bridge. As the cable is always upstream of 
the bridge, it is usually referred to as the upstream cable.

 

44 Dozer Blade, Volume 1, Number 7, 1121st Engineer Combat Group, March 24, 
1945.

 

45 Op cit., Dozer Blade.

 

46 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'Combat 
Operations Report, December 8, 1944 - June 22, 1945.' NARS.

 

47 World War II Operations Reports, 254th Engineer Battalion (C). 'After Action 
Report, March 1945, Daily Journal.' NARS.

 

48 Ibid.

CHAPTER 7 - FOOTNOTES

 

1 Updated February 1999 at time of HTML editing.
2 Michigan National Guardsman, February 1952, Volume VI, No. 
3 Michigan National Guardsman, August, 1967. 
4 House Resolution No. 262, House of Representatives, 
Michigan. 
5 After Action Report, Seney Fire, 107th Engineers. 
6 Michigan National Guardsman, February, 1978. 
7 Michigan National Guardsman, March, 1978.